11. september - vedeli ste že?


  1. FEMA: World Trade Center Building Performance Study, Chapter 2, p.2-15 (p.15 in pdf): "The aircraft is capable of carrying up to 23,980 gallons of fuel, and it is estimated that, at the time of impact, each aircraft had approximately 10,000 gallons of unused fuel on board (compiled from Government sources)." Kompletné citácie s prekladom a doplnenými informáciami nájdete na
  2. Pozri videozáznamy nárazu: video1, video2, video3, video4
  3. FEMA: World Trade Center Building Performance Study, Chapter 2, p.2-22 (p.22 in pdf): "..almost all of the jet fuel that remained on the impact floors was consumed in the first few minutes of the fire."
  4. Citácie s prekladom nájdete na
  5. Citácie s prekladom nájdete na
  6. Engineer finds clues in WTC wreckage, CNN, October 5, 2001: "The impact did nothing to this building,.."
  7. NIST poverila laboratóriá Underwriters Laboratories, aby urobili experient - vytvoriť model poschodí aké boli vo WTC a vystaviť ho kritickému požiaru. Model pri maximálnej gravitačnej záťaži po 2 hodinách kritického požiaru nespadol a hlavné časti nosníka vykázali len minimálny prehyb.
    Final Report on the Collapses of the World Trade Center Towers, p.145
    "All four test specimens sustained the maximum design load for approximately 2 hours without collapsing."
    "The results established that this type of assembly was capable of sustaining a large gravity load, without collapsing, for a substantial period of time relative to the duration of the fires in any given location on September 11."
    NIST FAQ: "NIST’s findings do not support the “pancake theory” of collapse, which is premised on a progressive failure of the floor systems in the WTC towers"
    Viac na Niektoré poschodia sa začali prehýbať
  8. NIST: Final Report on the Collapses of the World Trade Center Towers, p.82 (p.132 in pdf): "The focus of the Investigation was on the sequence of events from the instant of aircraft impact to the initiation of collapse for each tower. For brevity in this report, this sequence is referred to as the "probable collapse sequence," although [the investigation] does not actually include the structural behavior of the tower after the conditions for collapse initiation were reached".
    Preklad a ďalšie citácie nájdete v analýze Čo hovoria o páde WTC oficiálne správy
  9. NIST FAQ, August 2006: "How could the WTC towers collapse in only 11 seconds (WTC 1) and 9 seconds (WTC 2)—speeds that approximate that of a ball dropped from similar height in a vacuum (with no air resistance)?", viac v článku Úvaha o rýchlosti pádu WTC
    9/11 Commission Report, p.322 in pdf: "At 9:58:59, the South Tower collapsed in ten seconds,.."
  10. Najvyššia teplota vznikajúca pri požiari uhľovodíkových materiálov za ideálných podmienok je okolo 900°C (pozri prácu McCaffrey, B. J. - Purely Buoyant Diffusion Flames: Some Experimental Results. Final Report).
    Teploty vrchných plynov sa v požiaroch zvyčajne pohybyjú od 500-650°C (D. Drysdale, An Introduction to Fire Dynamics (New York: Wiley Interscience, 1985), p.134–140.; A.E. Cote, ed., Fire Protection Handbook 17th Edition (Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1992), p.10–67.
    Je tiež dôležité si uvedomiť, že teplota vzduchu v požiari sa nerovná teplote ocele v požiari. Oceľ má výbornú tepelnú vodivosť, teplo sa odvádza do iných častí konštrukcie, tým sa teplota znižuje.
    Aby ste roztopili oceľ, potrebujte ju zohriať na asi 1500°C.
    Nejaké daľšie informácie možno nájsť v článku Požiare vs. oceľové konštrukcie, ako sa správa oceľ pod vplyvom tepla/tlaku
  11., citácie, fotky a videá na
  12. Video1, video2, tiež rovnaká referencia ako vyššie
  13. NIST: Final Report on the Collapses of the World Trade Center Towers, p.90: "Observations of paint cracking due to thermal expansion. Of the more than 170 areas examined on 16 perimeter column panels, only three columns had evidence that the steel reached temperatures above 250 °C", p.,181: "Only three of the recovered samples of exterior panels reached temperatures in excess of 250 °C during the fires or after the collapse."
  14. Pozri graf a referencie v článku Dopad požiarov na časti oceľovej nosnej konštrukcie
  15. CBC News: Sunday's Evan Solomon interviews Lee Hamilton, August 21, 2006: "What caused the collapse of the buildings, to summarize it, was that the super-heated jet fuel melted the steel super-structure of these buildings and caused their collapse."
    Pozri aj Šéf 9/11 Komisie: super-horúci letecký benzín roztavil super-konštrukciu WTC
  16. FEMA: World Trade Center Building Performance Study, Appendix C, p.C-13 (p.13 in pdf): "The severe corrosion and subsequent erosion of Samples 1 [WTC7] and 2 [WTC] are a very unusual event. No clear explanation for the source of the sulfur has been identified."
  17. Ibid., A detailed study into the mechanisms of this phenomenon is needed to determine what risk, if any, is presented to existing steel structures exposed to severe and long-burning fires."
  18. NIST: Final Report on the Collapses of the World Trade Center Towers, p.153 (p.203 in pdf): "The time to collapse initiation [for WTC2] was 56 min after the aircraft impact.
    The time to collapse initiation [for WTC1] was 102 min from the aircraft impact.
  19. 9-11 Research - Other Skyscraper Fires; Meridian Plaza Fire - 18h fire, no collapse; First Interstate Bank Fire, 3.5h fire, no collapse; New York Plaza Fire - 6+h fire, no collapse; Kritický požiar a poškodenie budov WTC č.5 a 6 - nespadli
  20. FEMA: World Trade Center Building Performance Study, Chapter 5, p.5-1 (p.1 in pdf): " appears the collapse was due primarily to fire, rather than any impact damage from the collapsing towers."